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In recent years, there has been increasing public support in the US for the development of city transportation networks that include support systems for those using non-motorized travel, particularly pedestrians and bicyclists. Because of this, numerous city governments have begun to consider the needs of non-motorized travelers in their transportation planning. Some cities have even started sidewalk improvements and created pedestrian-only business districts and bicycle lanes. However, the popularity of using non-motorized transportation depends on many factors, including social and economic issues.

A 2012 nationwide survey was conducted to examine the preferred methods of commuting — traveling between home and the workplace — in the US. While it found that walking and bicycling still made up a relatively small proportion of commuting activity overall, these non-motorized travel methods did play important roles within a number of US cities. The survey found that this was especially true in smaller towns (particularly those formed around large universities, also known as “university towns”) and where several state and local agencies had taken steps to promote pedestrian and bicycle travel.

Table 1 Highest Rates of Walking and Bicycling to Work for Small Cities in the US

1. (A) 42.4 1. (B) 18.6
2. Athens 36.8 2. Key West 17.4
3. (C) 36.2 3. (D) 11.2
4. North Chicago 32.2 4. Santa Cruz 9.2
5. Kiryas Joel 31.6 5. Palo Alto 8.5
6. Oxford 29.7 6. Menlo Park 7.6

Table 1 shows the six highest rates of walking and bicycling to work for small cities in the US. Again, most of these are university towns where students make up a large percentage of the total population. Towns in the northeast – including Ithaca and State College – tended to have the highest rates of walking to work. Towns in the west – including Corvallis and Davis tended to have the highest rates of bicycling to work. Davis and Ithaca had the highest rates in their different categories.

In addition, in a number of large cities, local governments have taken steps to promote either pedestrian or bicycle travel. Table 2 shows the six highest walking and bicycling rates among large cities in the US.

Table 2 Highest Rates of Walking and Bicycling to Work for Large Cities in the US

1. Boston 15.1 1. Portland 6.1
2. Washington, DC 12.1 2. Madison 5.1
3. Pittsburgh 11.3 3. Minneapolis 4.1
4. New York 10.3 4. Boise 3.7
5. San Francisco 9.9 5. Seattle 3.4
6. Madison 9.1 6. San Francisco 3.4

Portland has the highest rate of bicycle commuting among large cities at 6.1 percent, partly because of its mild climate. However, Portland is also among places such as Madison and Minneapolis that have made investments aimed at creating more bicycle-friendly roads. Furthermore, in some large cities, evidence of neighborhood improvements to make walking and bicycling easier is now included in business promotion and real estate advertising. Madison is among several large cities that have promoted both walking and bicycling, making it one of two such cities ranking among the top six in both categories.

As more cities invest in making walking and bicycling easier, the popularity of non-motorized travel should also increase. Still, the 2012 study also identified several social and financial factors that will need to be overcome before higher rates of use for these transportation methods can be achieved.

(Brian McKenzie (2014) Modes Less Traveled— Bicycling and Walking to Work in the United States: 2008-2012 を参考に作成)

問1 In Table 1, which of the following do (A), (B), (C), and (D) refer to? 35

① (A) Davis  (B) Ithaca  (C) Corvallis    (D) State College
② (A) Davis  (B) Ithaca  (C) State College  (D) Corvallis
③ (A) Ithaca  (B) Corvallis (C) State College (D) Davis
④ (A) Ithaca  (B) Davis  (C) State College  (D) Corvallis

問2 According to the passage and Table 2, which characteristic is most likely shared by San Francisco and Madison? 36

① They are highly-populated university towns.
② They encourage walking and cycling.
③ They have car-only business districts.
④ They have pleasant mild climates.

問3 The main purpose of the passage is to 37.

① describe the problems with promoting non-motorized transportation use
② discuss government policies to discourage non-motorized transportation use
③ provide suggestions for improving non-motorized transportation use rates
④ report on the current situation regarding non-motorized transportation use

問4 What topic is most likely to follow the last paragraph? 38

① Challenges facing non-motorized transportation use
② Financial issues limiting motorized transportation use
③ Rates of use for non-motorized transportation
④ Strategies to promote motorized transportation use



アメリカで、通勤 ― 家と職場の間の移動 ― の好まれる方法を調べるために、2012年の全国調査が行われた。調査において歩行と自転車が依然として通勤活動全体の比較的小さな割合を占めていることが分かったが、これらの自動車以外の移動法は、アメリカの多くの都市で重要な役割を果たしていた。このことはより小さな町(特に「学園都市」として知られる、大きな大学の周りに形成された町)で、そしていくつかの州と地方の機関が歩行者と自転車移動を促進するための措置をとった場所で特に当てはまった。

表1 アメリカの小都市で仕事のための歩行と自転車の割合の高いもの

歩行 % 自転車 %
1.(A) 42.4 1.(B) 18.6
2.アテネ 36.8 2.キーウェスト 17.4
3.(C) 36.2 3.(D) 11.2
4.ノースシカゴ 32.2 4.サンタクルーズ 9.2
5.キリヤスジョエル 31.6 5.パロアルト 8.5
6.オックスフォード 29.7 6.メンロパーク 7.6



表2 アメリカの大都市で仕事への歩行と自転車の割合の高いもの

歩行 % 自転車 %
1.ボストン 15.1 1.ポートランド 6.1
2.ワシントンDC 12.1 2. マディソン 5.1
3.ピッツバーグ 11.3 3.ミネアポリス 4.1
4.ニューヨーク 10.3 4.ボイシ 3.7
5.サンフランシスコ 9.9 5.シアトル 3.4
6.マディソン 9.1 6.サンフランシスコ 3.4



問1 35 正解 ④
① (A)デイビス (B)イサカ   (C) コーバリス(D)ステートカレッジ
② (A)デイビス (B)イサカ   (C) ステートカレッジ(D) コーバリス
③ (A)イサカ  (B)コーバリス (C) ステートカレッジ(D)デイビス
④ (A)イサカ  (B)デイビス  (C) ステートカレッジ(D) コーバリス

問2 36 正解 ②
① それらは非常に人口の多い学園都市である。
② それらは歩行と自転車を促している。
③ それらは自動車専用のビジネス街がある。
④ それらは心地よい穏やかな気候である。

問3 37 正解 ④
① 自動車以外の交通手段の利用を促進することの問題を説明する
② 自動車以外の交通手段の利用を阻止するための政府の政策について議論する
③ 自動車以外の交通手段の利用率を改善するための提案を提供する
④ 自動車以外の交通手段の利用に関する現状を報告する

問4 38 正解 ①
① 自動車以外の交通手段の利用が直面する課題
② 自動車による交通の利用を制限する財政問題
③ 自動車以外の交通手段の利用率
④ 自動車による交通の利用を促進するための戦略



問1 A group of teachers is going to make a reservation for an outdoor basketball court for 2 hours, 20 days before they play. How much will they have to pay? 39

① $30
② $40
③ $50
④ $60

問2 Reservations may only be made by 40.

① calling the office
② going to the office
③ sending a fax to the office
④ sending an email to the office

問3 Under which of the following conditions would a group get all of its money back? 41

① A group rents an outdoor basketball court but cancels 2 days before using it.
② A group rents an outdoor basketball court with late booking, and it rains on the day of use.
③ A group rents the soccer field but cancels 3 weeks before using it.
④ A group rents the swimming pool with early booking, and it rains on the day of use

LIR University Sports Facilities

Office: LIR Building Room 102 Tel/Fax: 212-555-0121 Email: admin@lir.edu

Hourly and daily rentals for the pool, soccer field, and basketball courts are available for students, teachers, and the general public.

Student Groups Teacher Groups Others
Per hour Per day Per hour Per day Per hour Per day
Basketball Court
$30 $200 $45 $300 $60 $500
Basketball Court
$20 $150 $30 $200 $40 $300
Swimming Pool
$50 $300 $70 $400 $80 $700
Soccer Field
$60 $350 $80 $500 $90 $800

All requests for reservations must be made in person at the LIR Sports office.

Early Booking Reservations made more than 14 days prior to date of use $10 discount off the total
Late Booking Reservations made less than 4 days prior to date of use No refunds in the event of rain

Cancellations / Money Back Policy
– 100% money back if cancellation occurs 14 days or more prior to event
– 50% money back if cancellation occurs 13 to 5 days prior to event
No refunds if cancellation occurs 4 days or fewer prior to event
Refunds in the event of rain will be made only when all the following conditions are met:
1) outdoor booking; 2) unplayable court or field; and 3) not late booking.


問1 39 正解 ③
① 30ドル
② 40ドル
③ 50ドル
④ 60ドル

問2 40 正解 ②
① 事務所に電話すること
② 事務所へ行くこと
③ 事務所にファックスを送ること
④ 事務室にメールを送ること

問3 41 正解 ③
① 団体が屋外バスケットボールコートを借りるが、それを利用する2日前にキャンセルする。
② 団体が、直前の予約で屋外のバスケットボールコートを借りて、利用の日に雨が降る。
③ 団体がサッカー場を借りるが、それを利用する3週間前にキャンセルする。
④ 団体が早めの予約でプールを借り、利用の日に雨が降る。


事務所:LIRビル 102号室 電話/ファックス:212-555-0121 Eメール:admin@lir.edu


学生団体 教師団体 その他
1時間 1日 1時間 1日 1時間 1日
屋内バスケットボールコート 30ドル 200ドル 45ドル 300ドル 60ドル 500ドル
屋外バスケットボールコート 20ドル 150ドル 30ドル 200ドル 40ドル 300ドル
屋内水泳プール 50ドル 300ドル 70ドル 400ドル 80ドル 700ドル
屋外サッカー場 60ドル 350ドル 80ドル 500ドル 90ドル 800ドル


早期予約 利用日の14日以上前の予約 合計から10ドルの割引
直前の予約 利用日の4日前未満の予約 雨の場合でも返金不可

– キャンセルが当日の14日以上前に発生した場合は100%返金
– キャンセルが当日の13~5日前に発生した場合は50%の返金
– キャンセルが当日の4日以内に行われた場合、返金なし。
1)屋外の予約 2)コートや競技場が使用不可能 3)直前の予約ではない

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