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A 次の問い(問1~3)のパラグラフ(段落)には、まとまりをよくするために取り除いた方がよい文が一つある。取り除く文として最も適当なものを、それぞれ下線部①~④のうちから一つずつ選べ。

問1 27

When flying across the United States, you may see giant arrows made of concrete on the ground. Although nowadays these arrows are basically places of curiosity, in the past, pilots absolutely needed them when flying from one side of the country to the other. ①The arrows were seen as being so successful that some people even suggested floating arrows on the Atlantic Ocean. ②Pilots used the arrows as guides on the flights between New York and San Francisco. ③Every 16 kilometers, pilots would pass a 21-meter-long arrow that was painted bright yellow. ④rotating light in the middle and one light at each end made the arrow visible at night. Since the 1940s, other navigation methods have been introduced and the arrows are generally not used today. Pilots flying through mountainous areas in Montana, however, do still rely on some of them.

問2 28

Living in the city and living in the country require different skills. This is true for humans, of course, but also for birds. In one study, scientists took 53 birds from urban and rural areas of Barbados, one of the Caribbean islands, conducted a variety of tests, released them back into their natural surroundings, and reported their findings. ①The birds from urban areas were better at problem-solving tasks than the ones from rural environments. ②The researchers prepared several experiments to check the differences between the groups of birds. ③The urban birds had more capacity to resist disease than the rural ones. ④The researchers had expected that in comparison to the rural birds, the urban birds would be smarter but weaker. Being both smart and strong was thought to be unlikely. However, it seems that urban birds have it all.

問3 29

Formal dinners in England during the Tudor era (1485-1603) were called feasts. They were magnificent, and everything was done carefully in order to show one’s wealth and place in society. ①Whatever happened at the feasts reflected social class, even the order in which people walked into the room. ②There was a top table and the highest ranking guest would sit on the right of the king or the queen. ③Gold and silver dishes were also laid out to emphasize how rich the family was. ④The way feasts were held during the Tudor era has been richly presented in various films. The guests were not allowed to start eating before the ruler and had to stop eating once he or she had finished. When you could and couldn’t eat followed strict and complicated rules, like all aspects of the feast.


問1 27 正解 ①

飛行機でアメリカを横切るとき、あなたは地面にコンクリート製の巨大な矢印が見えるかもしれません。今日ではこれらの矢印は基本的に好奇心の対象となる場所ですが、過去においてはパイロットは国の一方の側から他方の側へ飛行するとき絶対にそれらを必要としていました。 ①矢印は非常に成功したと見なされていたので大西洋に矢印を浮かべることを提案する人さえいました。 ②パイロットはニューヨークとサンフランシスコの間の飛行の案内として矢印を使っていました。③16キロメートルごとに、パイロットは明るい黄色に塗られた長さ21メートルの矢印を通り過ぎていました。④真ん中の回転する照明とそれぞれの両端の1つの照明のおかげで夜に矢印が見えました。1940年代以降、他のナビゲーション方法が導入されており、今日では矢印は一般に使用されていません。しかし、モンタナ州の山岳地帯を飛行するパイロットは、依然としてその一部に頼っています。

問2 28 正解 ②

都市での生活と田舎での生活にはそれぞれ異なる技能が必要である。 これはもちろん人間にも当てはまるが、鳥にも当てはまる。 ある研究で、科学者はカリブ海の島々のひとつであるバルバドスの都市部と農村部から53羽の鳥を捕獲し、さまざまな試験を行い、それらを自然環境に放し、その結果を報告した。 ①都市部の鳥は農村部の鳥よりも問題解決の課題が上手だった。 ②研究者は、鳥の群れの違いを調べるためにいくつかの実験を準備した。 ③都会の鳥は田舎の鳥よりも病気に抵抗する能力を持っていた。 ④研究者たちは、田舎の鳥と比較して、都市の鳥は賢いが貧弱であると予想していた。 賢くて強くなることはありそうもないと考えられていた。しかし、都会の鳥はそれをすべて持っているようだ。

問3 29 正解 ④

チューダー時代(1485-1603)の間のイギリスの形式的な夕食は feast と呼ばれていた。 それらは壮大で、社会の中で自分の富と地位を示すためにすべてが慎重に行われていた。① feast で起こったことは何であれ、人々が部屋に入る順番でさえも、社会階級を反映していた。 ②一番上のテーブルがあり、最も階級の高い客が王や女王様の右側に座った。 ③一族がどれだけ裕福であるかを強調するために金と銀の皿も並べられた。④チューダー時代に行われた feast のあり方は、さまざまな映画の中で豊かに表現されてきた。 客は支配者より先に食べ始めることを許されず、彼または彼女が食べ終えたら食事をやめる必要があった。あなたがいつ食べることができ、いつ食べることができないかは、feast のすべての側面のように、厳密で複雑な規則に従っていた。


B 次の会話は、退職する恩師への贈り物について相談している生徒たちのやりとりの一部である。3032に入れるのに最も適当なものを、それぞれ下の①~④のうちから一つずつ選べ。

Sean: Thanks for coming in on a Saturday, everyone. It wasn’t easy to find a time for us all to sit down and talk. As you know, Ms. Guillot is retiring this year. It is our responsibility to arrange a gift for her on behalf of all current and former students. We don’t have much time before her party, so I’d really like to reach a final decision today. Did you come up with any ideas?
Alex: Not exactly, but I’ve heard that many teachers get bored after retirement. I don’t think we should get her something like a painting, because it would just sit on the wall. If we buy her something that she can make the most of on a daily basis, then she will feel the appreciation all her students have for her more often.
Sean: Thanks, Alex. So, you think giving her something 30 would be appropriate, right?

① she can use quite regularly
② to make her house look nice
③ to share at the retirement party
④ we students made ourselves

Alex: Yes. I think that would be best.
Thomas: I don’t think Ms. Guillot will be bored in her retirement. We all know that she is very active. She often participates in sporting events and loves spending time outside. I heard that on Saturdays and Sundays, she runs in the mornings and plays tennis in the evenings. She hardly ever stays indoors and never misses her daily walk even if it is raining.
Anne: And, she loves doing work in her garden, too. I’ve seen some pictures of her house. She has a beautiful garden and a massive deck. She has a great variety of flowers and vegetables. She often spends time relaxing on her deck just enjoying the view of her garden.
Sean: Thomas and Anne, it seems that you both think we should consider

Ms. Guillot’s 31 when we buy her present.

① art works
② garden
③ leisure time
④ weekends

Anne: That’s right. But it’s a little hard to come up with an actual item, isn’t it?
Mimi: Why don’t we get her something she can use for entertaining people? Ms. Guillot loves cooking and I heard she has small parties at her house every couple of weeks. Hmm… , I don’t think we need to get her anything to use in the kitchen, as she seems to have plenty of that kind of stuff already. And usually, people who like cooking have their own preferences when it comes to things like that.
Sally: I agree. She’s told us about her parties. She often mentions that whenever she has them, everyone has to go inside to eat if they want to sit down. Perhaps something that she can use when entertaining her guests would be most appropriate.
Anne: I think that’s a great point. Once she has retired, I’m sure she’ll be having more of those parties. Who knows? Maybe she’ll even invite us!
Sean: That would be nice, wouldn’t it, Anne? Well, thank you for all your ideas. Considering what we have discussed, I think a present such as 32 will be best as it seems to match what everyone has said about Ms. Guillot.

① a large bunch of flowers
② a statue for her garden
③ some outdoor furniture
④ some sets for cooking


B 30 正解 ① 31 正解 ③ 32 正解 ③


① 彼女がかなり定期的に使える
② 彼女の家を美しく見せるための
③ 引退パーティーで共有するための
④ 私たち学生が自分たちで作った


① 芸術作品
② 庭
③ 余暇時間
④ 週末


① たくさんの花束
② 彼女の庭の像
③ いくつかの屋外用家具
④ 調理用セット

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