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According to the researchers, what brand names are likely to be popular?

① Brand names from Canadian companies.
② Brand names from popular poems or songs.
③ Brand names which repeat sounds.
④ Brand names which sound expensive.


Companies spend millions of dollars developing popular brand names, but it can be hard to tell why some names succeed, and others don’t. Some Canadian linguists are trying to understand this. They found that people responded well when they heard names with rhyming sounds. Comparing two imaginary brand names, “Kooparut” and “Kooparoop,” researchers discovered people liked the second name more. However, the sounds shouldn’t be too difficult: for example, “Rantherafanth” failed, but “Rantifanti” was a hit. Using the same sound again and again is part of human nature. We see this in songs, word games, and everyday spoken language worldwide.

linguist 言語学者 rensoind 反応する compare 比較する imaginary 想像上の discover 発見する nature 性質



① カナダの会社から作られたブランドネーム。
② 有名な詩や曲から作られたブランドネーム。
③ 音を繰り返すブランドネーム。
④ 高価そうに聞こえるブランドネーム。


In which order does the speaker present dog training suggestions?

① Time → Distance → Place → Voice
② Time → Distance → Voice → Place
③ Time → Place → Distance → Voice
④ Time → Place → Voice → Distance


In training your dog to sit, here are four ways to make sure that it really learns. One method is to order the dog to keep sitting for short periods of time, then gradually increase the length of time. Another is to tell your dog to sit in different places so that it learns how to do it anywhere. One more way is to keep your dog close to you at first and then begin to move away from it. You can also try giving commands in a variety of tones and volumes. These tips will guarantee success.

train 訓練する make sure 確かめる method 方法 order 命令する keep ~ing し続ける period 期間 gradually だんだんと length 長さ at fist まずは command 命令 a variety of 様々な tone (声の)調子 volume (音の)大きさ tip ヒント guarantee 保障する



① 時間→距離→場所→声
② 時間→距離→声→場所
③ 時間→場所→距離→声
④ 時間→場所→声→距離


According to the speaker, which is true about pajamas?

① British merchants exported them to Persia.
② People wear them in public in some parts of the world.
③ Persians first thought they were men’s clothing.
④ They became very popular in England in the 18th century.


The word “pajamas” is one of many words English borrowed from other languages. It came from a Persian word, which literally meant “leg clothing.” At present, wearing pajamas is widespread in many Middle-Eastern and Asian countries. In these areas, they are not just for sleeping in, but are loose, lightweight trousers worn anywhere by both sexes. It is said that pajamas were first introduced to England in the 17th century, but soon went out of fashion. It was not until the latter half of the 19th century that they became widely popular.

borrow 借りる literally 本当に at present 現在 widespread 広く行き渡る loose ゆるい trousers ズボン introduce 導入する go out of ~でなくなる it is not until ~ that … ~してはじめて…する the latter half 後半



① イギリスの商人がそれらをペルシャに輸出した。
② 世界のある部分では人々はそれらを人前で着る。
③ ペルシャ人ははじめはそれらが男性の衣服だと思った。
④ それらは18世紀にイギリスでとても人気になった。


問23 According to the speaker, which trees do mountain pine beetles attack?

① Both sick and healthy trees.
② Both young and old trees.
③ Only old, sick trees.
④ Only young, healthy trees.

問24 According to the speaker, what is true about previously-attacked trees?

① They become thicker than trees not attacked.
② They can only be harvested after 18 years have passed.
③ They cannot be harvested at all.
④ They have colored marks on them.

問25 According to the speaker, what is likely to happen in the future?

① Attacking female beetles will stop forest destruction.
② Early harvesting will remove stains from trees.
③ Forest destruction by beetles will be managed.
④ Mountain pine beetles will migrate to warmer climates.

問23 正解
問24 正解
問25 正解

Mountain pine beetles are insects native to North America. They are a threat to some types of pine trees. Usually, they attack unhealthy trees, but can also affect healthy ones. Climate change may be causing an increase in the number of these beetles, and they are beginning to have an effect on a growing number of pine species.

Forest destruction is not only an ecological problem, but it also has a serious economic effect. Although trees which remain after beetle attacks can be used, they must be cut down within 18 years, or they cannot be sold. Even if they are harvested, timber from trees that beetles have lived in breaks more easily. In addition, beetles leave blue stains on the wood. In the end, damaged logs are less attractive to buyers and their value is decreased.

One way to fight these beetles is to spray artificial scents on other trees. These smells imitate those of female pine beetles and can attract males to locations where they can be destroyed.
Another way is to burn affected trees. While these methods won’t get rid of entire beetle populations, they will slow down the process of forest destruction.

native to ~原産の  insect 昆虫 threat 脅威  attack 攻撃する affect 影響を与える climate change 気候変動 cause 引き起こす growing ますます多くの destruction 破壊 ecological 生態系の remain 残る  within ~以内に even if たとえ~でも harvest 収穫する timber 木材  break 割れ目 in addition その上  stain しみ in the end 結局  log 丸太 attractive 魅力的な value 価値  spray 噴霧する artificial 人工の  scent におい imitate 真似をする  female メスの attract 引き付ける  male オスの location 場所  destroy 破壊する method 方法 get rid of ~を取り除く entire 全体の  process 過程、進行 remove 取り除く  migrate 移り住む




問23 話者によると、アメリカマツノキクイムシはどの木を攻撃するか。

① 病気と健康な木の両方
② 若い木と古い木の両方
③ 古くて病気の木のみ
④ 若くて健康な木のみ

問24 話者によると、以前攻撃された木について正しいものはどれか。

① それらは攻撃されていない木より太くなる。
② それらは18年が過ぎたあとにだけ収穫できる。
③ それらはまったく収穫できない。
④ それらには色のついた跡がある。

問25 話者によると、将来何が起こる可能性が高いか。

① メスの甲虫を攻撃することで森林破壊が止まる。
② 早く収穫することで木からしみを取り除く。
③ 甲虫による森林破壊は管理される。
④ アメリカマツノキクイムシはより温暖な気候に移り住む。


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