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The World Health Organization (WHO) has published a report on the availability and distribution of human health resources around the world. The World Health Report 2006 analyzes factors affecting countries’ health care environments. The data collected reveal a range of situations and have helped WHO propose a long-term action plan for improving health care offered in every country.

One of the key factors contributing to a country’s health care conditions is its numbers of health care workers. The report estimates the shortage of these professionals at an alarming 4.3 million worldwide. It further points out that the shortage is most severe in the poorest nations, especially those located south of the Sahara Desert which are faced with high rates of disease. As Table 1 shows, Senegal and Ghana, for example, have very low numbers of doctors and nurses per 10,000 people.

Surprisingly, perhaps, countries such as Russia and Cuba actually have higher proportions of medical professionals than some richer countries. The systems for qualifying health care workers do differ from country to country. Still, these two countries clearly give priority to ensuring that there are sufficient numbers of professionals.

Another important factor is a country’s health care spending, shown in Table 1 as a percentage of its gross domestic product (GDP), or the total value of all its goods and services. Despite their lower proportions of doctors, countries such as the USA, Sweden, and France spend much more on health
care, both as a percentage of GDP and as an actual amount, than Russia and Cuba.

With these factors and other conditions in mind, WHO has proposed solutions to the global shortage of health care workers. Areas of particular concern include war-torn countries such as Somalia and Afghanistan. Countries and organizations have provided financial aid in the past. Because money donated has not always led to more spending in health care, however, the report recommends a 10-year plan to help countries build sustainable training systems. International cooperation is vital to WHO’s proposal; countries at risk must be able to rely on the support of various global partners. Japan, the UK, and other countries are expected to give assistance including medical knowledge. Perhaps WHO’s vision of “universal access to health care” can become a reality.

Table 1 Health Care Indicators by Country

Country Doctors per 10,000 people* Nurses per 10,000 people* Healthcare spending(2003)
% of GDP Actual amount spent per person(US$)
Senegal 0.6 3.2 5.1 29
(A) 1.5 9.2 4.5 16
Afghanistan 1.9 2.2 6.5 11
Japan 19.8 77.9 7.9 2662
(B) 25.6 93.7 15.2 5711
Sweden 32.8 102.4 9.4 3149
France 33.7 72.4 10.1 2981
(C) 42.5 80.5 5.6 167
Cuba 59.1 74.4 7.3 211

*Data collected at different times between 2000-2005. (WHO (2006) The World Health Report 2006 を参考に作成)

問1 Which of the following combinations represents the three countries (A), (B), and (C) in Table 1 ? 35

① (A) Ghana (B) Somalia (C) Russia

② (A) Ghana (B) the USA (C) Russia

③ (A) Russia (B) Somalia (C) the USA

④ (A) Russia (B) the USA (C) Ghana

問2 According to the report, which two aspects influence a country’s health care situation most? 36

① Sustainable training systems and health care spending.

② Sustainable training systems and money donated.

③ The numbers of health care workers and health care spending.

④ The numbers of health care workers and money donated.

問3 Which of the following statements is NOT true?

① The lack of health care workers worldwide is reported to be around 4.3 million.

② The proportion of doctors and nurses is higher in Sweden than in Japan.

③ WHO’s report includes an action plan to help countries with poor health care systems.

④ WHO’s report proposes sending more doctors and nurses to poorer countries.


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世界保健機関(WHO)は世界中の人々の健康資源の入手可能性と分布に関する報告書を発行しました。世界保健報告2006 は,各国の医療環境に影響を与える要因を分析しています。収集されたデータはさまざまな状況を明らかにし,WHOがすべての国で提供される医療を改善するための長期的な行動計画を提案するのに役立ってきました。





表1 国別の医療指標

10,000人あたりの医者* 10,000人あたりの看護師* 医療費(2003)
GDPに対するパーセント 1人あたりの実際の支出額(米ドル)
セネガル 0.6 3.2 5.1 29
(A) 1.5 9.2 4.5 16
アフガニスタン 1.9 2.2 6.5 11
日本 19.8 77.9 7.9 2662
(B) 25.6 93.7 15.2 5711
スウェーデン 32.8 102.4 9.4 3149
フランス 33.7 72.4 10.1 2981
(C) 42.5 80.5 5.6 167
キューバ 59.1 74.4 7.3 211


問1 次の組み合わせのうち,表1の3つの国(A),(B),および(C)を表すものはどれか。35

① (A)ガーナ(B)ソマリア(C)ロシア

② (A)ガーナ(B)アメリカ(C)ロシア

③ (A)ロシア(B)ソマリア(C)アメリカ

④ (A)ロシア(B)アメリカ(C)ガーナ

問2 報告書によると,国の医療状況に最も影響を与える2つの側面はどれか。36

① 持続可能な訓練制度と医療費。

② 持続可能な訓練制度と寄付されたお金。

③ 医療従事者の人数と医療費支出。

④ 医療従事者の人数と寄付されたお金。

問3 次のうち,正しくないものはどれですか。37

① 世界中の医療従事者の不足は約430万人と報告されている。

② 医師と看護師の割合は日本よりもスウェーデンのほうが高い。

③ WHOの報告書には医療制度が貧弱な国々を支援する行動計画が含まれている。

④ WHOの報告書はより貧しい国により多くの医師と看護師を派遣することを提案している。



問1 Which is true about the studio’s services? 38

① Customers must arrive an hour before the session.

② Frames come in three different colors.

③ Photographs will be delivered within three business days.
④ Someone on the staff can help customers look great.

問2 How much can non-club members save when they use the Fantastic Package Plan instead of buying the same products individually? 39

① $20. ② $30.

③ $40. ④ $50.

問3 Which of the following statements is true? 40

① As many as five pictures can be included in a Multi-image sheet.

② Club members need to pay a $40 membership fee every year.

③ Customers can receive a 20th anniversary discount until December 31.

④ You must have a Fantastic Club membership to receive a free gift.


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Call us today at 555-456-0721 to schedule an appointment.

Basic Portrait Types (Frames: $20 each)

Single-image sheet Multi-image sheet
$40 $20 $5 $50
Large Medium Wallet-size Any combination of 2 to 5 photos

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・1 Large, 2 Medium, and 8 Wallet-size Single-image sheets

・2 Multi-image sheets of your choice

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Fantastic Club Membership

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40 正解 1

問1 スタジオのサービスについて正しいものはどれか。38

① 客は撮影の1時間前に到着しなければならない。

② フレームには3つの異なる色がある。

③ 写真は3営業日以内に配達される。

④ スタッフの誰かが客の見栄えを良くするのを助けることができる。

問2 同じ製品を別々に購入する代わりにファンタスティックパッケージプランを使用した場合,非クラブ会員はいくら節約できるか。39

① 20ドル。 ② 30ドル。

③ 40ドル。 ④ 50ドル。

問3 次の記述のうち,正しいものはどれか。40

① マルチイメージシートには5枚もの写真を含めることができる。

② クラブ会員は毎年40ドルの会費を支払う必要がある。

③ 客は12月31日まで20周年割引を受けることができる。

④ 無料ギフトを受け取るために,ファンタスティッククラブの会員資格を持たなければならない。












シングルイメージシート マルチイメージシート
40ドル 20ドル 5ドル 50ドル
財布サイズ 2から5枚の写真の任意の組み合わせ










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