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Hiro: What did you do this weekend?
David: I went to the shopping mall. They were having a big spring sale.
Hiro: Did you buy anything good?
David: Yeah, I bought a new jacket.
Hiro: 27 I have to go to the dry cleaner’s. I need to pick up my own jacket.

① I can’t remember.
② I remember that.
③ Remind yourself.
④ That reminds me.


Amy: How was the tennis tournament? Did you win the championship?
Miki: No. I lost the final match because I was exhausted and too nervous.
Amy: I’m sorry to hear that.
Miki : It’s OK. 28 Now I know it’s important to rest and relax before a big match next time.
Amy: I’m sure you’ll play better next year.

① I was very close to losing the final match.
② It turned out to be a good lesson for me.
③ It was the easiest game I’ve ever had.
④ I’ve totally given up playing tennis.


問1 27 正解 ④
ヒロ27 私はドライクリーニング店に行かなければなりません。私は自分のジャケットを取ってくる必要があります。

① 私は思い出せません。
② 私はそれを覚えています。
③ 思い出してください。
④ それは私に思い出させます(それで私は思い出した)。

問2 28 正解 ②
ミキ:それは大丈夫です。28 今や、私は今度の大きな試合の前に休息してくつろぐことが重要であると思います。

① 私は決勝戦でほとんど負けそうでした。
② それは私にとって良い教訓になりました。
③ それは今までで一番簡単な試合でした。
④ 私はテニスをするのを完全に諦めました。



問1 29

Stamp collecting is an educational hobby that can be inexpensive and enjoyed whenever you want. ①It provides a nice and practical way of learning about history, geography, famous people, and customs of various countries worldwide.This hobby began soon after the world saw the first postage stamp issued in Great Britain in 1840.You can also get started without spending money by saving the stamps on envelopes you receive.In addition, you are able to work on your collection any time, rain or shine. If you are looking for a new hobby, stamp collecting might be right for you!

問2 30

Until relatively recently, people in some parts of the world continued to use salt as a form of cash. There are several reasons why salt was used as money. Salt was given an economic value because there were so few places that produced it in large quantities. ①Another reason is that salt is fairly light and easy to carry for trading purposes.Additionally, salt can be measured, so we can easily calculate its value based on its weight.Furthermore, salt stays in good condition for a very long period of time, so it holds its value.Last but not least, salt has many other uses such as melting ice on roads in snowy regions. In short, salt has certain characteristics that make it suitable as a form of money.

問3 31



問1 29 正解 ②

問2 30 正解 ④


問3 31 正解 ①




Moderator: The title of today’s discussion is “Superstitions ― what they are, and why people believe in them.” Our guest speakers are Joseph Grant, a university professor who lives here in Japan, and Lily Nelson, a visiting professor from Canada. Joseph, can you explain what a superstition is?
Joseph: Superstitions are beliefs for which there is no obvious rational basis. For example, there are various dates and numbers that people are superstitious about. In many places, “Friday the 13th” is thought to be unlucky, and here in Japan, 4 and 9 are also considered unlucky. In contrast, 7 is known as “Lucky 7.” A superstitious person believes that actions such as choosing or avoiding certain numbers can influence future events even though there is no direct connection between them. Believing in superstitions is one of the ways humans can make sense of a set of unusual events which cause someone to feel lucky or unlucky. This seems to have been true throughout history, regardless of race or cultural background.
Moderator: So, it is your view that 32.

① superstitions are rationally based on certain dates and numbers
② superstitions can be used to explain strange happenings around us
③ superstitious people believe race and culture are related to luck
④ superstitious people tend to have identical beliefs regarding history

Joseph: That’s right. Superstitions tend to come from a combination of primitive belief systems and coincidence ― things that happen by chance.
Moderator: Could you tell us more about that?
Joseph: A primitive belief system develops from the natural human tendency to look for patterns in the world around us. Noticing patterns allows us to learn things quickly. However, sometimes chance or coincidental events are mistaken for a pattern, like passing a series of tests using the same pencil every time. The pencil is unrelated to passing the tests, but becomes a “lucky” pencil because of the coincidental connection. So, we may come to believe that one event causes another without any natural process linking the two events. I experienced this myself when I was called “Ame-otoko” or “Rain-man” by Japanese friends. By coincidence, I was present on occasions when it was raining and so gained a “rainy reputation.” Rationally speaking, we know that nobody can make rain fall from the sky, but our primitive belief system, combined with coincidence, creates a superstition around the “Rain-man.”
Moderator: How interesting! So, you are saying that 33.

① an “Ame-otoko” or “Rain-man” causes rain to fall from the sky
② coincidental events or chance patterns can create superstitions
③ looking for patterns is an unnatural action for humans
④ primitive belief systems create coincidental events

Moderator: How about you, Lily? Do you agree with Joseph?
Lily: Yes, I do, especially regarding the notion of coincidence or chance. In an attempt to better understand human behavior, an American psychologist conducted a famous experiment called “Superstition in the Pigeon” on a group of hungry birds. The pigeons were in cages and a feeding machine automatically delivered small amounts of food at regular time intervals. The psychologist observed that the pigeons began to repeat the specific body movements that they had been making whenever the food was delivered. He believed that the pigeons were trying to influence the machine to deliver food by their repeated movements. He assumed that we humans also do the same and try to influence future events by performing non-logical actions. Superstitious humans, just like the “superstitious” pigeons, associate an action with an outcome even though there is no logical connection.
Moderator: So, that psychologist thought from the experiment that 34.

① pigeons and humans both perform superstitious actions
② pigeons and humans both tend to influence machines
③ the pigeons knew when the food would be delivered
④ the pigeons’ repeated actions influenced the food delivery

Lily: Yes, that’s exactly right.
Moderator: Thank you, Joseph and Lily, for sharing your knowledge on superstitions and why people are superstitious. Let’s take a quick break here before we move on with the discussion.


司会:今日の討論のタイトルは「迷信 ― それらは何であるか、そしてなぜ人々はそれらを信じるのか」です。ゲストスピーカーは、ここ日本に住んでいる大学教授のジョセフグラントと、カナダの客員教授のリリーネルソンです。ジョセフ、迷信とは何か説明できますか。
ジョセフ:迷信は明白な合理的根拠がない信念です。たとえば、人々が迷信を持つ様々な日付や数があります。多くの場所で、「13日の金曜日」は不運であると考えられており、ここ日本では4や9も不運であると考えられています。対照的に、7は “ラッキー7″として知られています。迷信を持つ人は、それらの間に直接の関係がないとしても、特定の数を選択または回避するなどの行為は、将来の出来事に影響を及ぼす可能性があると考えています。迷信を信じることは、誰かに幸運や不運を感じさせるまれな出来事の一組を人間が理解する方法の1つです。人種や文化的背景に関係なく、これは歴史を通して真実であったようです。

① 迷信は特定の日付と数に合理的に基づいている
② 迷信は身の回りの奇妙な出来事を説明するのに使うことができる
③ 迷信を持つ人々は人種や文化は運に関連していると考えている
④ 迷信を持つ人々は歴史に関して同じ信念を持つ傾向がある


① 「アメオトコ」または「レインマン」は空から雨を降らせる
② 偶然の一致による出来事や偶然のパターンは迷信を作り出すことがある
③ パターンを探すことは人間にとって不自然な行動である
④ 原始的な信念の体系が偶然の出来事を作り出す


① ハトと人間はどちらも迷信に基づいた行動をする
② ハトと人間はどちらも機械に影響を与える傾向がある
③ ハトは食べ物がいつ配られるかを知っていた
④ ハトの繰り返し行動が食べ物を配ることに影響を与えた


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