English reading for Japanese high school students: the Common Test for University Admissions in 2013 DAY 1

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Section 4A

Read the following sentence and table, and choose the most appropriate one from 1 to 4 for 35 to 37.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has published a report on the availability and distribution of human health resources around the world. The World Health Report 2006 analyzes factors affecting countries’ health care environments. The data collected reveal a range of situations and have helped WHO propose a long-term action plan for improving health care offered in every country.

One of the key factors contributing to a country’s health care conditions is its numbers of health care workers. The report estimates the shortage of these professionals at an alarming 4.3 million worldwide. It further points out that the shortage is most severe in the poorest nations, especially those located south of the Sahara Desert which are faced with high rates of disease. As Table 1 shows, Senegal and Ghana, for example, have very low numbers of doctors and nurses per 10,000 people.

Surprisingly, perhaps, countries such as Russia and Cuba actually have higher proportions of medical professionals than some richer countries. The systems for qualifying health care workers do differ from country to country. Still, these two countries clearly give priority to ensuring that there are sufficient numbers of professionals.

Another important factor is a country’s health care spending, shown in Table 1 as a percentage of its gross domestic product (GDP), or the total value of all its goods and services. Despite their lower proportions of doctors, countries such as the USA, Sweden, and France spend much more on health
care, both as a percentage of GDP and as an actual amount, than Russia and Cuba.

With these factors and other conditions in mind, WHO has proposed solutions to the global shortage of health care workers. Areas of particular concern include war-torn countries such as Somalia and Afghanistan. Countries and organizations have provided financial aid in the past. Because money donated has not always led to more spending in health care, however, the report recommends a 10-year plan to help countries build sustainable training systems. International cooperation is vital to WHO’s proposal; countries at risk must be able to rely on the support of various global partners. Japan, the UK, and other countries are expected to give assistance including medical knowledge. Perhaps WHO’s vision of “universal access to health care” can become a reality.

Table 1 Health Care Indicators by Country

Country Doctors per 10,000 people* Nurses per 10,000 people* Healthcare spending(2003)
% of GDP Actual amount spent per person(US$)
Senegal 0.6 3.2 5.1 29
(A) 1.5 9.2 4.5 16
Afghanistan 1.9 2.2 6.5 11
Japan 19.8 77.9 7.9 2662
(B) 25.6 93.7 15.2 5711
Sweden 32.8 102.4 9.4 3149
France 33.7 72.4 10.1 2981
(C) 42.5 80.5 5.6 167
Cuba 59.1 74.4 7.3 211

*Data collected at different times between 2000-2005. (WHO (2006) The World Health Report 2006)

No.1 Which of the following combinations represents the three countries (A), (B), and (C) in Table 1 ? 35

1. (A) Ghana (B) Somalia (C) Russia

2. (A) Ghana (B) the USA (C) Russia

3. (A) Russia (B) Somalia (C) the USA

4. (A) Russia (B) the USA (C) Ghana

No.2 According to the report, which two aspects influence a country’s health care situation most? 36

1. Sustainable training systems and health care spending.

2. Sustainable training systems and money donated.

3. The numbers of health care workers and health care spending.

4. The numbers of health care workers and money donated.

No.3 Which of the following statements is NOT true? 37

1. The lack of health care workers worldwide is reported to be around 4.3 million.

2. The proportion of doctors and nurses is higher in Sweden than in Japan.

3. WHO’s report includes an action plan to help countries with poor health care systems.

4. WHO’s report proposes sending more doctors and nurses to poorer countries.


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Section 4B

Read the photo studio ad on the next page and choose the most appropriate ones from 1 to 4 for 38 to 40

No.1 Which is true about the studio’s services? 38

1. Customers must arrive an hour before the session.

2. Frames come in three different colors.

3. Photographs will be delivered within three business days.

4. Someone on the staff can help customers look great.

No.2 How much can non-club members save when they use the Fantastic Package Plan instead of buying the same products individually? 39

1. 20 dollars. 2. 30 dollars.

3. 40 dollars. 4. 50 dollars.

No.3 Which of the following statements is true? 40

1. As many as five pictures can be included in a Multi-image sheet.

2. Club members need to pay a 40 dollars membership fee every year.

3. Customers can receive a 20th anniversary discount until December 31.

4. You must have a Fantastic Club membership to receive a free gift.


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