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Whether as a dream or reality, the idea of climbing to the top of the highest mountains of the world has a special appeal to mountain climbers. Two sets of mountains have become targets for the most serious climbers. The first set, called the Eight-thousanders (8000ers), consists of the 14 mountain peaks higher than 8,000 meters above sea level, which are all in Asia. The other set, the Seven Summits, refers to the highest mountain on each of the seven continents of the world.

First, let us consider the 8000ers. Endeavors to climb such high mountains understandably involve situations that are life-threatening and even fatal to the members of the climbing parties. Such difficulties were overcome by a party led by Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal of France, and these men became the first to successfully climb an 8000er, Annapurna in Nepal, in 1950. In the two decades that followed, the summits of all the other 8000ers were reached by at least one climber.

There are even individuals who have succeeded in climbing all 14 of the 8000ers; the first ten are listed in Table l. Because of the lack of oxygen at such extreme heights, it is not uncommon for climbers to rely on bottled oxygen in their attempts to reach these highest peaks. In Table 1, the numbers from (1) to (4) to the right of the four climbers’ names indicate the order of completions without bottled oxygen. The very first person to reach all 14 summits, Reinhold Messner of Italy, accomplished this without oxygen support. The second person in Table 1, Jerzy Kukuczka of Poland, succeeded in climbing all 8000ers in less than half the number of years it took Messner, but this was with the aid of bottled oxygen.

Table 1
The First Ten Climbers Who Reached the Peaks of All the 8000ers (All Male)

Order Name Nationality Year
Time Taken to Complete
1 R. Messner(1) Italy 1986 16/3
2 J. Kukuczka Poland 1987 7/11
3 E. Loretan(2) Switzerland 1995 13/3
4 C. Carsolio Mexico 1996 10/9
5 K. Wielicki Poland 1996 16/6
6 J. Oiarzabal(3) Spain 1999 13/11
7 S. Martini Italy 2000 15/9
8 Y. S. Park South Korea 2001 8/2
9 H. G. Um South Korea 2001 12/11
10 A. Inurrategi(4) Spain 2002 10/7

The 8000ers also attract female climbers. In 1974, three Japanese ― Mieko Mori, Naoko Nakaseko, and Masako Uchida ― became the first women to succeed in climbing one when they reached the peak of Manaslu in Nepal. Since then, many others have followed. There are at least two women who have made successful climbs of all 14 peaks: Edurne Pasaban of Spain by 2010 and Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner of Austria by 2011, the latter without oxygen support. As we have seen so far, climbing all the 8000ers has long been a target for both male and female enthusiasts from all over the world.

(Richard Sale 他(2012) On Top of the World を参考に作成)

問1 The 8000ers are defined as 35.

① Asian mountains within 8,000 meters of the coast
② the 8, 000 highest summits in the world
③ the mountains higher than 8, 000 meters
④ the world’s 8,000 most popular mountains

問2 According to the passage and Table 1, which of the following is true about J. Oiarzabal? 36

① He became the first Spaniard to climb all the 8000ers with bottled oxygen.
② He came third in completing the climbs of all the 8000ers without bottled oxygen.
③ He climbed three of the 8000ers with bottled oxygen and the others without.
④ He was the third person to receive oxygen support in climbing the 8000ers.

問3 The main purpose of the above passage is to 37.

① describe the history of mountain climbing on each continent
② detail the 14 highest mountains in Asian countries
③ explain the 8000ers and some of their successful climbers
④ list the first ten who reached the peaks of all the 8000ers

問4 What topic might follow the last paragraph? 38

① Achievements by Japanese climbers
② Male climbers of the 8000ers
③ The locations of the 8000ers
④ The Seven Summits and their climbers





表1 8000er(全て男性)の山頂に達した最初の10人の登山者

順位 氏名 国籍 完了年 完了にかかった時間(年/月)
1 R.メスナー(1) イタリア 1986 16/3
2 J. ククチカ ポーランド 1987 7/11
3 E. ロレタン(2) スイス 1995 13/3
4 C. カルソリオ メキシコ 1996 10/9
5 K.ヴィエリッキ ポーランド 1996 16/6
6 J. オヤルサバル(3) スペイン 1999 13/11
7 S. マルティーニ イタリア 2000 15/9
8 Y. S. パーク 韓国 2001 8/2
9 H. G. ウム 韓国 2001 12/11
10 A. イニュラテギ(4) スペイン 2002 10/7

8000erは女性の登山家もまた魅了しています。1974年、3人の日本人 ― 森美枝子、中世古直子、内田昌子 ― は、ネパールのマナスルの山頂に達したとき、8000erの登山に成功した初めての女性となりました。それ以来、他の多くの人々がこれに続いています。14峰すべての登山に成功した女性は少なくとも2人います。2010年までにスペインのエドゥルネ・パサバンと2011年までにオーストリアのゲルリンデ・カルテンブルンナーで、後者は酸素の支援なしでした。これまで見てきたように、8000erすべてを登ることは、世界中の男性と女性の両方の愛好家にとって長い間目標になってきたのです。

問1 35 正解 ③
① 海岸から8000メートル以内のアジアの山
② 世界の8,000個の最も高い山頂
③ 8000メートル以上の山
④ 世界の8000個の最も人気のある山

問2 36 正解 ②
文章と表1によると、J. オヤルサバルについて正しいのは以下のうちどれか。
① 彼はボトル入り酸素で全ての8000erを登った最初のスペイン人となった。
② 彼はボトル入り酸素なしで全ての8000erの登山を完了し、3位になった。
③ 彼はボトル入り酸素あり8000erの3つを登り、その他はボトル入り酸素なしで登った。
④ 彼は8000erを登る際に酸素の支援を受けた3人目の人物であった。

問3 37 正解 ③
① 各大陸での登山の歴史を説明する
② アジアの国々の最も高い14の山々を詳しく述べる
③ 8000erとその成功した何人かの登山者を説明する
④ 全ての8000erのの山頂に到達した最初の10人を列挙する

問4 38 正解 ④
① 日本人登山者による実績
② 8000erの男性登山者
③ 8000erの場所
④ 7大陸最高峰とその登山者


次のページの米国Santos University(SU)のウェブサイト上にある,部屋やルームメイト探しの掲示板を読み,次の問い(問1~3)の3941に入れるのに最も適当なものを,それぞれ次の①~④のうちから一つずつ選べ。

問1 A woman lives in a two-bedroom apartment with one empty bedroom. She is looking for someone to rent the empty bedroom. She prefers a woman who is serious about her studies and can pay a monthly rent of $300. Who would she most likely contact? 39

① Chris (No. 1)
② Hikaru (No. 2)
③ PJ (No. 3)
④ Susie (No. 4)

問2 Hikaru (No. 2) would most likely be contacted by someone who 40.

① has an extra room in the apartment
② needs a room for the summer
③ prefers to share a room with someone
④ wants a male roommate

問3 Students posting messages to this eWall must follow certain guidelines. Which of the following is most likely one of the guidelines? 41

① Avoid giving your full name.
② Begin your message with a greeting.
③ Do not include your phone number.
④ Include your food preference.

Santos University eWall

Log in to post a message! (New User)
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No. 1 Roommate Wanted

I’m looking for a male roommate to share a room with from September 2015 to August 2016. I’m a law student. I take studying seriously but am easy to get along with.

Rent: $210 (covers only gas)
Location: A five-minute bus ride to SU
Contact: chris2211@stsuni.edu (Chris)

No. 2 Room Available in Santos Apartments

$420 per month for July and August 2015 (one bedroom) ― all utilities included

The largest of our apartment’s three bedrooms is available for the summer. It’s located within walking distance from SU. You’d share the apartment with two other women attending summer school. Email Hikaru at st-apt@stsuni.edu or call (820)269-1234 for more information.

No. 3 Room Wanted

I’m PJ, a junior looking for a room for the 2015-2016 school year. I’m a cheerful person who studies hard on weekdays, but enjoys the weekends. I also play for the women’s basketball team at SU. My budget for rent is at most $320, preferably including gas, electricity, and water. Please contact me at pj@stsuni.edu if interested!

No. 4 Looking for a Room!

Hi, I’m Susie. I’ve just finished my year abroad in Japan and am looking for a room for my last year at SU. I’m allergic to cats. The maximum I can afford for rent is $260 per month. Please contact me at sus@stsuni.edu and I’ll reply promptly. Thank you!


問1 39 正解 ③
① クリス(No. 1)
② ヒカル(No.2)
③ PJ(No.3)
④ スージー(No.4)

問2 40 正解 ②
① アパートに余分な部屋を持つ
② 夏の間、部屋を必要とする
③ 誰かと部屋を共有することを好む
④ 男性のルームメイトが欲しい

問3 41 正解 ①
① フルネームを書くことを避ける。
② 挨拶でメッセージを始める。
③ あなたの電話番号を入れない。
④ 食べ物の好みを入れる。


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No.1 ルームメイト募集



No. 2 サントスアパートで部屋利用可能

2015年7月および8月(1寝室)1月あたり420ドル ― すべての公共料金が含まれています


No.3 部屋を探しています


No. 4 部屋を探しています。


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