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Color is an important feature considered by consumers when shopping for various products. Marketing companies need to identify the colors that can create an intention to purchase and a desired atmosphere in retail stores. However, it is not easy to anticipate which colors will be popular for individual items, because consumers have different preferences depending on product types. Through the research reported here, we can deepen our understanding of the influence of color on consumers.

In this study, researchers surveyed German consumers to obtain information on whether the participants thought color was important when shopping, how much they were influenced by color when buying various products, and what emotions and associations were related to various colors. First, the researchers examined the data and found that color was indeed important for the participants when shopping, with 68% of them mentioning color as a determining factor when choosing the product they intended to purchase.

Next, the researchers investigated whether the degree of importance consumers put on color varied depending on the products purchased. Figure 1 shows six everyday products and the percentages of the participants who placed high importance on color when purchasing those products. The top two products were both those worn by the participants, and the three lowest were all electronic devices. A total of 36. 4% of the participants placed importance on color for cellphones. This was the highest among the electronic products, but only slightly more than half of that for bags, which appeared one rank above.

Figure 1. The percentages of the participants who placed high importance on color when purchasing six everyday products.

Third, the researchers looked at the participants’ perceptions of and associations with colors. The results showed that red had various meanings: love, danger, anger, and power. Green produced a relationship with nature, good luck, and health. Furthermore, the color white was associated with balance, health, and calm. Results showed each color had several different meanings.

The findings summarized in the above passage explained how colors influenced German consumers. However, this influence may vary from country to country. In this globalized world, it has become easier to market products internationally, partly due to the increased use of the Internet. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the importance consumers in other parts of the world place on color in their choices of products. The next part of this passage will examine this topic.

(Okan Akcay (2013) Product Color Choice and Meanings of Color: A Case of Germany の一部を参考に作成))

問1 The passage mentions that it is difficult to understand which colors consumers like better because 33.

① color preferences differ from generation to generation
② consumers’ favorite colors vary for different products
③ product marketers choose the most popular colors
④ various products are purchased by consumers when shopping

問2 In Figure 1, which of the following do (A), (B), (C), and (D) refer to? 34

① (A) Bags (B) Footwear (C) Cellphones (D) Music players
② (A) Bags (B) Footwear (C) Music players (D) Cellphones
③ (A) Footwear (B) Bags (C) Cellphones (D) Music players
④ (A) Footwear (B) Bags (C) Music players (D) Cellphones

問3 Which of the following statements is correct according to the passage? 35

① German businesses consider green to represent passion to consumers.
② German consumers perceive one color as containing multiple images.
③ German people appear to prefer green clothing to red clothing.
④ German producers choose one color for products after observing their sales.

問4 What topic is most likely to follow the last paragraph? 36

① The effects of globalization on color choices in international business
② The importance of marketing electronic devices in other countries
③ The influence of the Internet on product choices in international business
④ The significance of color for the consumers in other countries





図1. 6つの日用品を購入する際に色を重視した参加者のパーセンテージ



問1 33 正解 ②
① 色の好みが世代によって異なる
② 消費者の好みの色が製品によって異なる
③ 商品マーケティング担当者が最も人気のある色を選ぶ
④ 買い物をするときに、様々な商品が消費者によって購入される

問2 34 正解 ③
図1では、以下の(A)、(B)、(C)、(D)のどちらが参照されていますか。 34
① (A)かばん (B)履物 (C)携帯電話 (D)音楽プレーヤー
② (A)かばん (B)履物 (C)音楽プレーヤー (D)携帯電話
③ (A)履物 (B)かばん (C)携帯電話 (D)音楽プレーヤー
④ (A)履物 (B)かばん (C)音楽プレーヤー (D)携帯電話

問3 35 正解 ②
① ドイツ企業は緑を消費者への情熱を表すものと考えている。
② ドイツの消費者は一つの色が複数のイメージを含んでいると理解している。
③ ドイツ人は赤い服よりも緑色の服を好むようだ。
④ ドイツの生産者は売り上げを観察して製品に1つの色を選ぶ。

問4 36 正解 ④
① 国際ビジネスでグローバリゼーションが色の選択に与える影響
② 他の国々での電子機器販売の重要性
③ 国際ビジネスでインターネットが製品の選択に与える影響
④ 他の国々の消費者にとっての色の重要性



問1 What inspired Ralph Bearison to start Papa Bear Cooking School? 37

① He knew his family and friends were jealous of his cooking skills.
② He knew that fathers were not interested enough in cooking.
③ He wanted to give fathers opportunities to become professional cooks.
④ He wanted to teach fathers to cook quick, delicious, and healthy meals.

問2 Tony is going to participate in the French Course and use the discount coupon provided. He will also buy an apron-and-towel set from the school. How much will he pay in total? 38

① $270  ② $275  ③ $285  ④ $300

問3 Ed hopes to expand the variety of food he can cook for his family. He has no free time on weekends or mornings. Which cooking course would he most likely take? 39

① Chinese
② Italian
③ Japanese
④ Sunday Family Breakfast

問4 The advertisement suggests that 40.

① 12-year-old children can participate in the Sunday course at no cost
② Cooking Courses for Fathers will last longer than three months
③ Bear Cooking School requires students to bring ingredients to classes
④ students at Papa Bear Cooking School can eat the food they cook

Papa Bear Cooking School:
Cooking Courses for Fathers

Papa Bear Cooking School was established in 1992 by Ralph Bearison. He recognized that many fathers liked to cook but often didn’t have enough time to prepare meals. He hoped to share his interest in cooking meals in a short time that would taste good and be good for their families. At Papa Bear Cooking School, you can learn to create a variety of meals under the guidance of professional cooks, making you the envy of your family and friends. The following cooking courses start in the first week of May.

Cooking Course Day Time Course Fee
Italian Tuesday 10:00-12:00 $150
French Wednesday 9:00-12:00 $250
Japanese Thursday 15:00-18:00 $250
Chinese Saturday 17:00-19:00 $200
Sunday Family Breakfast* Sunday 8:00-10:00 $150

*Children aged 10 to 15 are welcome to join their fathers in the Sunday Family Breakfast Course for $100 per child.

> All courses are 10 weeks long.
> Fees include all ingredients.
> Cooking knives, silverware, such as forks and spoons, and plates will be provided by the school.

What to Bring
> An apron and towels (You can rent an apron-and-towel set for $6 per week or purchase a new set at our store for $50.)
> An empty stomach!

Check out our Papa Bear Cooking School website for details of our facilities and other cooking courses.

10% Off
Course Fee
Papa Bear
Cooking School


問1 37 正解 ④
① 彼は家族や友人たちが彼の料理の技能に嫉妬していることを知ってた。
② 彼は父親たちが料理にあまり興味がないことを知っていた。
③ 彼は父親たちにプロの料理人になる機会を与えたかった。
④ 彼は父親たちに、早くて美味しくて健康的な食事を調理することを教えたかった。

問2 38 正解 ②
① 270ドル ② 275ドル ③ 285ドル ④ 300ドル

問3 39 正解 ③
① 中国調理
② イタリア料理
③ 日本料理
④ 日曜日の家族朝食

問4 40 正解 ④
① 12歳の子供は無料で日曜コースに参加できる
② 父親のための料理コースは3ヶ月以上続く
③ パパベア料理教室は生徒に材料を教室に持ってくるように要求している
④ パパベア料理教室の生徒は自分が作った食べ物を食べることができる



料理コース 曜日 時間 コース料金
イタリア料理 火曜日 10:00〜12:00 150ドル
フランス料理 水曜日 9:00〜12:00 250ドル
日本料理 木曜日 15:00〜18:00 250ドル
中国料理 土曜日 17:00〜19:00 200ドル
日曜日の家族の朝食* 日曜日 8:00-10:00 150ドル






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