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次の問い(問1~3)のパラグラフ(段落)には,まとまりをよくするために取り. 除いた方がよい文が一つある。取り除く文として最も適当なものを,それぞれ下線部①~④のうちから一つずつ選べ。

問1 27

 You might know that dogs have difficulty in distinguishing colors, but which ones? The results of a study suggested that dogs can recognize yellow and blue, plus tones that combine them. ①Cells in the eyes determine what colors we can see. Human beings have three kinds of cells: one sensitive to red, another to green, and the third to blue. ②Dogs, though, only have two kinds: yellow and blue.Dogs have poor eyesight and can’t see objects at a distance. It was found that dogs could still see objects other than yellow and blue, such as bright red berries among green leaves. ④When the color contrast was weaker, dogs no longer noticed the red objects on a green background. If you play with your dog in a field of green grass with a red ball, be sure to use a bright one.

問2 28

 Researchers tracked the daily activities of college students. ①Based on their activities on non-class days, they were sorted into three categories: morning, day, and night people. Then, the researchers compared the students’ class schedules with their academic outcomes. ②They found that students whose 24-hour rhythms did not correspond with their class schedules received lower grades.Some students criticize colleges for starting their morning classes too early.Students categorized as night people could not perform well at any time during the daytime. Students categorized as morning or day people taking later classes also suffered from the mismatch. The research indicates that if students can structure schedules resembling their non-class days, they tend to achieve academic success. Since daily cycles vary among individuals, there is no perfect schedule for everyone.

問3 29

 Babies think logically before they are fully able to speak, according to a study which calls into question whether we need language in order to reason. Infants aged between 12 and 19 months were selected for an experiment. ①Infants have started to develop language knowledge and skills but cannot control them in a complex way at this stage. In the experiment, they were shown a combination of two pictures, some with no logical connections, to check their non-verbal reactions. ②When presented with an illogical combination of pictures, the infants showed signs of confusion.This implies that infants develop their logical thinking skills without advanced language knowledge.This also suggests that our logic improves as our language ability develops. The results revealed early stages of the human ability to reason logically.


問1 27 正解 3


問2 28 正解 3


問3 29 正解 4




Nao: What beautiful weather! A sunny day with clear blue skies definitely brightens the mood.

Kevin: Hey! What’s that in the dirt? It looks like a woman’s wallet.

Nao: No, I think it’s a smartphone in a leather case.

Josephine: Just leave it on the ground. You have no idea where it’s been or who’s touched it. Besides, since it rained yesterday, it must be really muddy. It looks like the case is still a little wet. So, it must have been there overnight. If water got into the case, the phone is probably broken anyway.

Nao: So, Josephine, do you mean that 30?

① one of us should take charge
② someone is looking for it now
③ the dirt should be wiped off
④ we’d better just ignore it then

Josephine: Yes. Don’t you think so?

Chinami: I see what you mean, but I think it’s our responsibility now. We should do something. Wouldn’t you want someone to return your smartphone? I know I would really appreciate that. Can you imagine yourself without your phone?

Tim: It looks really dirty, but Chinami has a good point. When I was in the Boy Scouts, we were taught to do something good for others every day. Not only does it help society, but you can also feel a sense of pride and satisfaction. Trying to return this smartphone definitely qualifies.

Kevin: I agree. And anyway, it might still work. Even if water got inside, it could still be turned on after it dries out. If you can’t turn it on, there might still be hope. It may cost some money to fix it, but it wouldn’t be a total loss.

Nao: In that case, 31.

① it must be taken to the shop in order to be recycled
② some Boy Scouts will take care of it as it’s their duty
③ the owner has already given up all hope of finding it
④ we should try to be of some help to the poor owner

Chinami: I think it’s the best way to deal with this situation.

Nao: OK, I’ll have a look at it. Should I open the cover?

Kevin: Isn’t that a violation of privacy? I think we need to take it to the police station as it is. Doing that should be enough. If someone found my phone, that’s what I hope they would do. I keep all kinds of personal stuff in my case like my driver’s license. You don’t want people looking at your private information.

Chinami: Wait a minute. I think we can handle this ourselves. I know if I lost my phone, I’d want it returned as soon as possible. Of course, taking it to the police is a safe option. If we take it there, though, it might create a lot of trouble for the owner. She would have to fill out a lot of forms and answer questions from the police. Why don’t we just open it now and see what we find? It may be easier that way.

Josephine: We’re only a few minutes from campus. I bet it belongs to another student from our school, or maybe a professor. If we find something connected to our school, it will be easy to return it to the owner through the university lost and found. Let’s look in the case without touching any of the buttons on the phone. If we turn it on, we could be responsible for breaking it.

Nao: OK, let’s see what’s inside. There are a few cards but no names to tell us the owner is a person at the university. There aren’t any photo stickers, either. I guess it looks like 32. Agreed?

① it should be put back where we originally found it
② the only choice we have is to turn it on and wait
③ this matter needs to be taken care of by the police
④ we should take it to the university lost and found

Chinami: OK.

Josephine: I think we can now all agree that’s the best idea.


30 正解 4
31 正解 4
32 正解 3





ナオ:では、ジョセフィン、あなたの言いたいことは 30 ということですね。

① 私たち一人が責任を負う
② 誰かが今それを探している
③ 汚れを拭き取るべきである
④ それなら私たちは無視するほうが良い






① リサイクルするためにそれを店に持っていかなければならない
② ボーイスカウトの中には、それが彼らの義務であるので面倒を見る人もいます
③ 持ち主はすでにそれを見つける望みを完全にあきらめています
④ 私たちは貧しい飼い主の助けになるように努めるべきです






ナオ:わかりました、中にあるものを見てみましょう。カードがいくつかありますが、持ち主が大学の人であることを私たちに伝える名前はありません。写真シールもありません。私は 32 ように思います。同意しますか。

① それは私たちがもともと見つけた場所に戻すべきである
② 私たちの唯一の選択肢は、電源を入れて待つことである
③ この問題は警察によって対応される必要がある
④ 私たちはそれを大学の遺失物取扱所に持っていくべきである



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