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  Public transportation is vital for independent travel for blind and low-vision people. These passengers reported that they preferred using buses, but that finding bus stops was often a major challenge. Having more information about the location of bus stops might help them use bus transportation systems more easily. Landmarks, such as bus stop benches and signs, may be helpful to recognize bus stop locations, but they are not usually indicated on bus route maps. Researchers are now working to make it easier for blind and low-vision people to identify landmarks.

  These days, landmarks can be viewed from anywhere around the globe. This is thanks to 360-degree photos available on an online map application, called street views (SVs). Using SVs to check landmarks could prove to be more efficient and cost-effective for researchers than visiting and checking every bus stop in the world. This approach could be one step toward development of technology such as applications that provide audio guides about landmarks and directions to bus stops.

  A study was conducted to examine whether SVs are reliable sources for gathering information. The number of landmarks found in SVs was compared with the number of landmarks in pictures taken at the same sites, called physical views (PVs), to see to what degree they matched. The PVs consisted of 7-10 photographs taken by the researchers from a variety of angles at each of 179 bus stops in cities in the US. Key landmarks were classified into six categories: (a) bus stop signs, (b) bus stop shelters, (c) benches, (d) trash and recycling cans, (e) mailboxes and newspaper boxes, and (f) traffic signs and other poles. Three people counted the numbers of landmarks in both the SV and PV data sets. When the numbers were different among the three, they were arranged from smallest to largest and the middle number was used.

Table 1 summarizes the numbers of landmarks found in both PVs and SVs. For example, there were 133 benches found in PVs, while 121 were found in SVs. Overall, the total counts of landmarks were higher in PVs than in SVs.

Table 1
Numbers and Consistency Rates for PVs and SVs

Type of LandmarkPVSVConsistency Rate
Bus Stop Signs1671520.61
Bus Stop Shelters102980.88
Trash and Recycling Cans100950.72
Mailboxes and Newspaper Boxes69560.78
Traffic Signs and Other Poles1621530.81

  Another analysis was conducted by calculating and examining the consistency of observations between the PV and SV data sets. The results are shown as the consistency rates in Table 1 with larger numbers showing higher consistency. The researchers regarded any value over 0.60 as consistent. Bus stop shelters and benches showed the highest consistency at 0.88.

  In conclusion, using SVs is useful for recognizing landmarks. In the next study, in order to further evaluate this method, a different group of people was recruited online. They counted landmarks in the same SV data set after a short training session, and then the accuracy was tested.

(Kotaro Hara 他(2015) Improving Public Transit Accessibility for Blind Riders by Crowdsourcing Bus Stop Landmark Locations With Google Street View: An Extended Analysis の一部を参考に作成)

問1 According to the passage, what is the advantage of SVs? 33

① They can automatically confirm landmarks in 360-degree photos.
② They can be used to detect landmarks from distant locations.
③ They can be valuable when taking 360-degree photos.
④ They can help people to make new landmarks on site.

問2 If one person found 82 mailboxes in the SV data set, another found 89, and a third found 84, what would be the number of the count for mailboxes? 34

① 82
② 84
③ 85
④ 89

問3 Which of the following is true based on the information in this report? 35

① Ninety-five trash and recycling cans were found at the real sites.
② PV pictures were ineffective for locating landmarks at bus stops.
③ SV and PV ratings for bus stop signs were considered to be consistent.
④ The number of landmarks was much larger in SVs than in PVs.

問4 In the next study, it was investigated how well 36.

① another group of people identified landmarks using pictures from online map applications
② another group of people took pictures of bus stop locations with their cameras
③ the researchers found landmarks in the online pictures taken at bus stops
④ the researchers visited sites and added information about landmarks to online maps


問1 33 正解 2
問2 34 正解 2
問3 35 正解 3
問4 36 正解 1








問1 文章によると、SVの長所は何か。 33

① それらは360度写真のランドマークを自動で確認できる。
② それらは離れた場所からランドマークを検出するのに利用できる。
③ それらは360度の写真を撮るときに役立つ。
④ それらは人々が現場で新しいランドマークを作るのに役立つ。

問2 ある人がSVデータセットで82個の郵便ポストを見つけ、別の人が89個を見つけ、3人目が84個を見つけた場合、郵便ポストの数はいくつになるか。 34

① 82
② 84
③ 85
④ 89

問3 このレポートの情報に基づくと、正しいのは次のうちどれか。 35

① 実際の現場では、95個のゴミ箱とリサイクル箱が見つかった。
② PVの写真はバス停のランドマークの場所を特定するのに効果がなかった。
③ バス停標識のSVとPVの評価は整合していると見なされた。
④ ランドマークの数は、PVよりもSVの方がはるかに多かった。

問4 次の研究では、どのようにして 36 が調べられた。

① 別のグループの人々が、オンライン地図アプリケーションの写真を使用してランドマークを特定したか
② 別のグループの人々が自分たちのカメラでバス停の場所の写真を撮ったか
③ 研究者がバス停で撮られたオンライン写真でランドマークを発見したか
④ 研究者が現地を訪れ、ランドマークに関する情報をオンライン地図に追加したか


次のページの制服販売に関する案内を読み,次の問い(問 1~4)の37~40に入れるのに最も適当なものを,⓪~④のうちから一つずつ選べ。

問1 According to the Bulldog News, which of the following is true? 37

① Previous uniforms are available for sale in the four stores.
② Students can combine clothing items from the uniform list.
③ Teachers will wear school shirts in order to reduce costs.
④ The uniforms were replaced because the school colors changed.

問2 Mary wants to shop for her uniform with her parents, but they are only free on Sundays. She thinks either new or previous uniforms are fine, but her parents are not willing to pay shipping fees. Which store will she choose? 38

① Bulldog Outlet
② Central High Union
③ Jack’s Uniforms
④ Uniforms Online

問3 Tony wants to buy one long-sleeved shirt with a logo, one short-sleeved shirt, and one P.E. set from Jack’s Uniforms. How much will he pay? 39

① $110
② $115
③ $120
④ $125

問4 Which of the following statements about the uniform shops is true? 40

① Newly designed uniform items can be repaired free of charge.
② The in-school shop offers discounts for students with student cards.
③ The outlet store is open in the morning for shopping before classes.
④ Uniform items can be returned up to two weeks from purchase.

Central High School Bulldog News!

We are happy to announce our new uniforms. While the previous design is still available, we now have a new design. The colors are the same as before, so you will be able to choose any items from the uniform list to wear in any season. Uniform items are sold at the four shops listed below. Plus, in order to show school spirit, teachers will also wear school shirts once a week!

Shop Information

ShopBusiness HoursAvailable DesignsNotes
Central High Union (in-school shop)7:30-16:30 Monday-FridayNew5% discount with student card
Jack’s Uniforms11:00-20:00 Tuesday-SundayNew$10 off when you buy three items or more
Uniforms Online24 hours a day 7 days a weekNew & Previous$7 shipping fee
Bulldog Outlet13:00-21:00 Monday-SaturdayPreviousOnly at Bulldog Outlet! Free uniform repair upon presentation of your receipt

All shops allow returns within eight days of purchase.

Uniform Price List

Short-sleeved shirtLong-sleeved shirtLong pantsSkirtP.E. set (shorts and T-shirt)

*Add the Bulldog logo to any item for $5.


問1 37 正解 2
問2 38 正解 3
問3 39 正解 2
問4 40 正解 2

問1 ブルドッグニュースによると、次のうち正しいのはどれか。 37

① 4店舗で以前の制服を入手できる。
② 生徒は制服一覧の衣類を組み合わせることができる。
③ コスト削減のため、教師はスクールシャツを着用する。
④ 学校の色が変わったので制服が変更された。

問2 メアリーは両親と一緒に彼女の制服を購入したいと思っているが、彼らは日曜日のみ暇がある。彼女は新しい制服または以前の制服のどちらでも良いと考えているが、彼女の両親は送料を支払いたくない。彼女はどの店を選ぶか。 38

① ブルドッグアウトレット
② セントラルハイユニオン
③ ジャックスユニフォーム
④ ユニフォームオンライン

問3 トニーは、ジャックスユニフォームでロゴが入った長袖シャツ1枚、半袖シャツ1枚、体育セットを1つ購入したいと考えている。彼はいくら払うか。 39

① 110ドル
② 115ドル
③ 120ドル
④ 125ドル

問4 制服店に関する次の記述のうち、正しいものはどれか。 40

① 新しくデザインされた制服は無料で修理できる。
② 学校内店舗では学生証を持つ生徒に割引を行う。
③ アウトレット店が授業前の買い物のために朝に開店している。
④ 制服は購入後最大2週間まで返品できる。




セントラルハイユニオン(学校内店舗)7:30〜16:30 月曜日〜金曜日新規のもの学生カードで5パーセント割引
ジャックスユニフォーム11:00〜20:00 火曜日〜日曜日新規のもの3点以上購入すると10パーセント割引
ブルドッグアウトレット13:00〜21:00 月曜〜土曜以前のものブルドッグアウトレットのみ。レシートを提示すれば無料で修理





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