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You are preparing for a group presentation on gender and career development for your class. You have found the article below.

Can Female Pilots Solve Asia’s Pilot Crisis?

[1] With the rapid growth of airline travel in Asia, the shortage of airline pilots is becoming an issue of serious concern. Statistics show that the number of passengers flying in Asia is currently increasing by about 100,000,000 a year. If this trend continues, 226,000 new pilots will be required in this region over the next two decades. To fill all of these jobs, airlines will need to hire more women, who currently account for 3% of all pilots worldwide, and only 1% in Asian countries such as Japan and Singapore. To find so many new pilots, factors that explain such a low number of female pilots must be examined, and possible solutions have to be sought.

[2] One potential obstacle for women to become pilots might be the stereotype that has long existed in many societies: women are not well-suited for this job. This seems to arise partly from the view that boys tend to excel in mechanics and are stronger physically than girls. A recent study showed that young women have a tendency to avoid professions in which they have little prospect of succeeding. Therefore, this gender stereotype might discourage women from even trying. It may explain why at the Malaysia Flying Academy, for instance, women often account for no more than 10% of all trainees enrolled.

[3] Yet another issue involves safety. People may be concerned about the safety of aircraft flown by female pilots, but their concerns are not supported by data. For example, a previous analysis of large pilot databases conducted in the United States showed no meaningful difference in accident rates between male and female pilots. Instead, the study found that other factors such as a pilot’s age and flight experience better predicted whether that person is likely to be involved in an accident.

[4] Despite the expectation that male pilots have better flight skills, it may be that male and female pilots just have skills which give them different advantages in the job. On the one hand, male pilots often have an easier time learning how to fly than do female pilots. The controls in a cockpit are often easier to reach or use for a larger person. Men tend to be larger, on average, than women. In fact, females are less likely than men to meet the minimum height requirements that most countries have. On the other hand, as noted by a Japanese female airline captain, female pilots appear to be better at facilitating communication among crew members.

[5] When young passengers see a woman flying their plane, they come to accept female pilots as a natural phenomenon. Today’s female pilots are good role models for breaking down stereotypical views and traditional practices, such as the need to stay home with their families. Offering flexible work arrangements, as has already been done by Vietnam Airlines, may help increase the number of female pilots and encourage them to stay in the profession.

[6] It seems that men and women can work equally well as airline pilots. A strong message must be sent to younger generations about this point in order to eliminate the unfounded belief that airline pilots should be men.

問1 According to the article, the author calls the current situation in Asia a crisis because 35.

① many more male airline pilots are quitting their jobs than before
② the accident rates are increasing among both male and female pilots
③ the number of female pilots has not changed much for the last few decades
④ the number of future pilots needed will be much larger than at present

問2 According to the article, there is little difference between men and women in 36.

① how easily they learn to operate airplanes
② how likely they are to be involved in accidents
③ how much time they can spend on work
④ how people perceive their suitability for the job

問3 In Paragraph [4], the author most likely mentions a Japanese female airline captain in order to give an example of 37.

① a contribution female pilots could make to the workplace
② a female pilot who has excellent skills to fly a plane
③ a problem in the current system for training airline pilots
④ an airline employee who has made rare achievements

問4 Which of the following statements best summarizes the article? 38

① Despite negative views toward female pilots, they can be as successful as male pilots.
② Due to financial problems the percentage of female students in a pilot academy in Asia is too small.
③ In the future many countries worldwide may have to start hiring more female pilots like Asian countries.
④ There is little concern about increasing female pilots in the future because major obstacles for them have been removed.




[1] アジアにおける航空便の急成長に伴い、航空機のパイロットの不足が深刻な問題となっている。統計によると、アジアを飛行機で移動する乗客の数は現在、年間約1億人増加している。この傾向が続くと、今後20年間でこの地域で226,000人の新しいパイロットが必要になる。これらの仕事のすべてを満たすために、航空会社は女性をより多く雇う必要がある。女性は現在世界中の全パイロットの3%を占め、日本やシンガポールのようなアジア諸国ではわずか1%しか占めていない。非常に多くの新しいパイロットを見つけるためには、そのような女性パイロットの少ない数を説明する要因を検討しなければならず、そして可能な解決策を模索しなければならない。

[2] 女性がパイロットになる上での1つの潜在的な障害は、女性はこの仕事にあまり適していないという、多くの社会で長い間存在していた固定観念かもしれない。これは、男子は機械学に優れている傾向があり、女子よりも身体的に強いという見方に部分的に起因しているようだ。最近の研究では、若い女性は成功する見込みがほとんどない職業を避ける傾向があることが示されている。したがって、この性差についての固定観念は、女性が挑戦することすら妨げるかもしれない。そのことによって、例えばマレーシア航空専門学校では、なぜ女性が入学者の10%しか占めていないのかが説明されるかもしれない。

[3] さらに別の問題は安全性に関するものである。人々は女性パイロットによって操縦される航空機の安全性について心配するかもしれないが、彼らの心配はデータによって支持されていない。たとえば、アメリカで行われた大規模なパイロットのデータベースの以前の分析では、男性と女性のパイロットの間の事故率に有意な差は無かったことを示している。代わりに、この研究では、パイロットの年齢や飛行経験などの他の要因が、その人が事故に巻き込まれる可能性が高いかどうかをより適切に予測することがわかった。

[4] 男性パイロットはより優れた飛行技術を持っているという予想にもかかわらず、男性と女性のパイロットは仕事において異なる利点を与える技能を持っているだけかもしれない。一方で、男性パイロットは、女性パイロットよりも操縦方法の習得がしばしば容易である。コックピット内の操作は、しばしば体の大きな人にとってより手が届きやすく、使いやすい。男性は女性よりも平均して体が大きい傾向がある。実際、女性は男性よりもほとんどの国が持つ最低身長条件を満たす可能性が低い。一方で、日本の女性航空機長によって指摘されたように、女性パイロットは乗組員間のコミュニケーションを促進することにおいて優れているように思われる。

[5] 幼い乗客が、女性が飛行機を操縦しているのを見れば、彼らは女性パイロットを自然現象として受け入れるようになる。今日の女性パイロットは、家族と一緒に家にいる必要性などの固定観念や伝統的な慣習を打ち破るための優れた役割モデルである。ベトナム航空によってすでに行われているように、柔軟な仕事の手配を提供することは、女性パイロットの数を増やし、彼女たちがその職業に留まることを促すかもしれない。

[6] 男性と女性は航空機のパイロットと同じようにうまく平等に働くことができるようだ。航空機のパイロットは男性あるべきだという根拠のない信念を排除するために、この点について強いメッセージを若い世代に送る必要がある。

問1 35 正解 ④

① 以前よりも多くの男性の航空機のパイロットが仕事を辞めている
② 男性と女性のパイロットの両方で事故率が上昇している
③ 女性パイロットの数はこの数十年の間あまり変わっていない
④ 必要とされる将来のパイロットの数は現在よりもずっと多くなる

問2 36 正解 ②

① 彼らがどれほど容易に飛行機の操縦を学ぶか
② どのくらいの可能性で彼らが事故に巻き込まれるか
③ 彼らが仕事にどのくらいの時間をかけられるか
④ 人々が仕事への適性をどのように認識しているか

問3 37 正解 ①

① 女性パイロットが職場に対してできる貢献
② 飛行機を操縦する優れたスキルを持つ女性パイロット
③ 航空機のパイロットを訓練するための現在のシステムにおける問題
④ 稀な業績を挙げた航空会社の従業員

問4 38 正解 ①

① 女性パイロットに対する否定的な見方にもかかわらず、彼女たちは男性パイロットと同じくらい成功する可能性がある。
② 経済的な問題により、アジアのパイロット養成学校の女子学生の割合が少なすぎる。
③ 将来、世界中の多くの国がアジアの国々のようにより多くの女性パイロットを雇い始めなければならないだろう。
④ 女性パイロットにとっての大きな障害は取り除かれてきたので、将来、女性パイロットを増やすことについての懸念はほとんどない。


You are studying about world ecological problems. You are going to read the following article to understand what has happened in Yellowstone National Park.

Yellowstone National Park, located in the northern United States, became the world’s first national park in 1872. One of the major attractions of this 2.2-millionacre park is the large variety of animals. Some people say that Yellowstone is the best place in the world to see wolves. As of December 2016, there were at least 108 wolves and 11 packs (social families) in the park. By the 1940s, however, wolves had almost disappeared from Yellowstone National Park. Today, these wolves are back and doing well. Why have they returned?

The wolves’ numbers had declined by the 1920s through hunting, which was not regulated by the government. Ranchers on large farms raising cattle, horses, and sheep did not like wolves because they killed their animals. When the wolves were on the point of being wiped out by hunting, another problem arose— the elk herds increased in number. Elk, a large species of deer, are the wolves’ principal source of food in the winter. The elk populations grew so large that they upset the balance of the local ecosystem by eating many plants. People may like to see elk, but scientists were worried about the damage caused by the overly large population.

To solve this problem, the U.S. government announced their intention to release young wolves brought from Canada. It was hoped that the wolves would hunt the elk and help bring down the population. However, because many ranchers were against bringing back wolves, it took about 20 years for the government and the ranchers to agree on a plan. In 1974, a team was appointed to oversee the reintroduction of wolves. The government published official recovery plans in 1982, 1985, and finally in 1987. After a long period of research, an official environmental impact statement was issued and 31 wolves were released into Yellowstone from 1995 to 1996.

This project to reduce the number of elk was a great success. By 2006, the estimated wolf population in Yellowstone National Park was more than 100. Furthermore, observers believe that the wolves have been responsible for a decline in the elk population from nearly 20,000 to less than 10,000 during the first 10 years following their introduction. As a result, a lot of plants have started to grow back. The hunting of wolves is even allowed again because of the risk from wolves to ranchers’ animals. While hunting wolves because they are perceived as a threat may seem like an obvious solution, it may cause new problems. As a study published in 2014 suggested, hunting wolves might increase the frequency of wolves killing ranchers’ animals. If the leader of a wolf pack is killed, the pack may break up. Smaller packs or individual wolves may then attack ranchers’ animals. Therefore, there is now a restriction on how many wolves can be hunted. Such measures are important for long-term management of wolf populations.

問1 The decline of wolves in Yellowstone National Park in the early 1900s resulted in 39.

① a decrease in the number of hunters, which was good for the wolves
② a decrease in the number of ranchers, which reduced the human population
③ an increase in the number of elk, which damaged the local ecosystem
④ an increase in the number of trees and plants, which helped elk to hide

問2 Out of the following four graphs, which illustrates the situation the best? 40





問3 According to the article, which two of the following tell us about the current situation in the park? (Choose two options. The order does not matter.) 4142

① More travelers are visiting the park than thirty years ago.
② One species was saved but another has become extinct instead.
③ People have started hunting wolves around this area again.
④ The park has both wolves and elk, as well as rich vegetation.
⑤ There is a new rule to reduce the elk population in the park.

問4 The best title for this article is 43.

① A Decrease in the Number of Ranchers’ Animals
② Addressing Problems With Nature’s Balance
③ Nature Conservation Around the World
④ Releasing Elk in National Parks







問1 39 正解 ③

① 狩猟者の数が減少し、それはオオカミにとって良いことであった。
② 牧場主の数が減少し、それが人間の人口を減少させた
③ アメリカアカシカの数が増加し、それが地元の生態系を破壊した
④ 樹木や植物の数が増加し、それはアメリカアカシカが隠れるのを助けた

問2 40 正解 ②

問3 正解 4142 ③-④

① 30年前よりも多くの旅行者が公園を訪れている。
② 一つの種は救われたが、代わりに別の種は絶滅した。
③ 人々はこの地域で再びオオカミの狩猟を始めた。
④ 公園にはオオカミとアメリカアカシカだけでなく豊かな植生がある。
⑤ 公園内のヘラジカの個体数を減らすための新しい規則がある。

問4 43 正解 ②

① 牧場主の家畜の数の減少
② 自然のバランスの問題に取り組む
③ 世界中の自然保護
④ 国立公園でアメリカアカシカを放つ

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